Short Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Rating Interview (SPRINT)

The SPRINT is a brief, global assessment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that assesses symptoms of intrusion, avoidance, numbing and arousal, and related aspects of PTSD (somatic distress, stress vulnerability and impairment in function). Developed by Connor & Davidson (2001) for use with adults (18+ years), its design followed a need for a less time consuming, yet structured PTSD-specific measure.

The SPRINT is an eight-item self-report, with one item corresponding to each of the above symptoms, which is measured on a five-point likert scale (e.g. 0 = not at all, 4 = very much). The SPRINT includes two additional items that allows for the measurement of global improvement and symptom change over time, particularly useful for following up treatment. The assessment takes 5-10 minutes to complete. Sample items include:

How much have you been bothered by unwanted memories, nightmares, or reminders of the event?

How much would you get upset when stressful events or setbacks happen to you?

Scoring

Scores from each item are summed to attain a final score. The maximum score is 32 and represents the most severe symptom state, while a cutoff score of 14 has been suggested by authors to warrant further assessment using a structured interview for PTSD.

Psychometric properties

The SPRINT has demonstrated good test-retest reliability (ICC = .78), high internal consistency (α = .88), good convergent validity against a comparable PTSD symptom measure (Davidson Trauma Scale [DTS], r = .73) and good divergent validity against the Sheehan Social Support Scale (r = .10). A score of 14-17 has been associated with a 96% diagnostic accuracy. The SPRINT is sensitive to treatment effects, again significantly correlating with the DTS (r = .66). The SPRINT has also been found to correlate with the gold standard diagnostic assessment tool for PTSD, the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; Vaishnavi, Connor & Davidson, 2006).

Use & Availability

The SPRINT is time efficient, reliable, valid and freely available at https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/assessment/screens/sprint.asp, along with further information. The SPRINT is particularly useful in settings where rapid assessment is desirable, however it is not as comprehensive as the CAPS.

References

Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2001). SPRINT: A brief global assessment of post-traumatic stress disorder. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 16(5), 279-284.

National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. (2016). SPRINT. Retrieved from https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/assessment/screens/sprint.asp

Vaishnavi, S., Payne, V., Connor, K., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2006). A comparison of the SPRINT and CAPS assessment scales for posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 0, 1-4. doi: 10.1002/da.20202

Traumatic Events Screening Inventory (TESI)

Traumatic Events Screening Inventory (TESI-C; TESI-C-Brief Form; TESI-PRF-R; TESI-CRF-R)

  • Assesses a child’s experience of a variety of potential traumatic
    events including current and previous injuries, hospitalizations,
    domestic violence, community violence, disasters, accidents,
    physical abuse, and sexual abuse.
  • Additional questions assess DSM-IV PTSD Criterion A and other additional information about the specifics of the event(s).

Applicable population

  • Children – Ages vary according to version-TESI-C-age 6-18
  • Normative data – Yes
  • Publisher – The National Center for PTSD; Dartmouth Child Trauma Research Group

Administration

  • TESI-C is administered as an interview
  • TESI-PR-R parent report (demonstrated test–retest reliability
    kappas ranging from .50 to .79 (Berent et al., 2008)
  • The TESI-PRR provides a comprehensive analysis of child’s trauma exposure and
    is recommended as the best available option for assessing children’s trauma exposure under 10 (Stover & Berkowitz, 2005)

TESI-CR-F child report form

  • Adminstration time 10-30 min
  • Question format for 24 item version – Yes/No answers plus spaces
  • For example: Has someone ever told you they were going to hurt you really
    badly, or acted like they were going to hurt you really badly?
  • Followed by: When this happened, were you really hurt? Was someone else
    really hurt or even killed?

Developer

Ford et al (2002) Veteran affairs National Centre for PTSD.  The TESI-C/ TESI-C-Brief Form is downloadable at: The National Centre for PTSD http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/pages/assessments/tesi.asp

References

Berent, R., Crusto, C. A., Lotyczewski, B. S., Greenberg, S. R., Hightower, A. D., & Kaufman, J. S. (2008). Development and psychometric refinement of a measure assessing young children’s exposure to violence. Best Practices in Mental Health, 4(1), 19-30.

Ford, J. (2002). Traumatic Events Screening Inventory–Parent Report Revised (TESI). Unpublished manuscript. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut.

Ford, J., Racusin, R., Rogers, K., Ellis, C., Schiffman, J., Ribbe, D., & Edwards, J. (2002). Traumatic Events Screening Inventory for Children (TESI-C) Version 8.4. National Center for PTSD and Dartmouth Child Psychiatry Research Group, Dartmouth VT.

Ghosh-Ippen, C., Ford, J., Racusin, R., Acker, M., Bosquet, K., Rogers, C., & Edwards, J. (2002). Trauma events screening inventory-parent report revised. San Francisco: The Child Trauma Research Project of the Early Trauma Network and The National Center for PTSD Dartmouth Child Trauma Research Group.

Stover, C. S., & Berkowitz, S. (2005). Assessing violence exposure and trauma symptoms in young children: A critical review of measures. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(6), 707-717.

Strand, V. C., Sarmiento, T. L., & Pasquale, L. E. (2005). Assessment and screening tools for trauma in children and adolescents: A review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 6(1), 55-78.

Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-5)

The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) is considered to be the gold standard for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis.  The 30-item structured interview corresponds to the diagnostic criteria for PTSD described in version 5 of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).   The Life Events Checklist (LEC) is used in conjunction with the CAPS to assess PTSD Criterion A (the trauma experienced).  The full interview typically takes 45-60 minutes to administer.

Use & availability

The CAPS is the intellectual property of the National Center for PTSD, a division of the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA).  It is available at no cost to health professionals, but a request for use must be submitted to VA.  This can be done online at https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/assessment/ncptsd-instrument-request-form.asp.

Psychometric properties

The CAPS has proven reliability and is well-validated.  Initial validation of the DSM-5-aligned version shows r = .83 convergent validity with the widely-validated CAPS-IV.  It has been translated into more than 10 languages, with validation studies occurring in Bosnian and Swedish.

References

Department of Veterans Affairs, United States of America. (2017). National Center for PTSD.  http://www.ptsd.va.gov/ (accessed 1 September 2017).

Weathers, F.W., Keane, T.M., & Davidson, J.R.T. (2001). Clinician Administered PTSD Scale: The first 10 years of research. Depression and Anxiety, 13(3), 132-156.

Weathers, F.W., Blake, D.D., Schnurr, P.P., Kaloupek, D.G., Marx, B.P., & Keane, T.M. (2015). The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) – Past Month. Available from https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/assessment/documents/ptsd_trauma_assessments.asp.

Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS)

Description of CPSS

The Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) was designed to assess PTSD diagnostic criteria and symptom severity among children and adolescents aged between 8-18. It was developed in 2001 in the US by Edna Foa, PhD, based on the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS), (Child PTSD Symptom Scale, n.d.), which is a longer scale requiring more in-depth details on the trauma experienced and level of functional impairment (PTSD Symptom Scale, n.d.). The symptoms covered are based on the definitions and criteria from the DSM-IV (Child PTSD Symptom Scale, n.d.), however the CPSS was adapted to include developmentally appropriate language to maximize children’s understanding of the items (Foa, 2001). It can be administered by a qualified practitioner in the form of a semi-structured interview and used as a diagnostic tool. It can also be used as a self-report measure. Furthermore, it has been administered for research purposes in communities where large groups of children have experienced trauma (Kohrt, Jordans, Tol, Luitel, Maharjan, & Upadhaya, 2011). The scale includes 26 items, which are divided into 2 event, 17 symptom and 7 functional impairment items. See examples below. The symptom items are divided into 3 subscales: re-experiencing, avoidance and hyper-arousal behaviours, each measured on a 4-point frequency scale from 0 (not at all or only at one time) to 3 (5 or more times a week/almost always). The functional impairment items are measured as absent (0) or present (1), (Foa, 2001).

(Event item) Please write down your most distressing event:

(Re-experiencing symptom item) Below is a list of problems that kids sometimes have after experiencing an upsetting event. Read each one carefully and circle the number (0-3) that best describes how often that problem has bothered you IN THE LAST 2 WEEKS.

0             1             2             3             Having bad dreams or nightmares

(Functional impairment item) Indicate below if the problems you rated in Part 1 have gotten in the way with any of the following areas of your life DURING THE PAST 2 WEEKS.

Y            N            Chores and duties at home

Psychometric properties

A total score is measured by adding the scores for each symptom item and calculating a total score between 0-51. Higher scores indicate more severe symptoms (Foa, 2001) and the clinical cutoff appropriate for diagnosing PTSD is 15 or greater (Child PTSD Symptom Scale, n.d.). The scale has been found to have both high sensitivity and specificity (Child PTSD Symptom Scale, 2001). The range of the total score for functional impairment is 0-7 with a higher score indicating greater functional impairment (Foa, 2001). The CPSS has high internal consistency and test-retest reliability for both total score and the three subscales of symptom items (Foa, Johnson, Feeny, & Treadwell, 2001). For the functional impairment items, no measure of internal consistency or test-retest reliability was found. The CPSS has been tested against the Child PTSD Reaction Index (CPTSD-RI) and convergent validity was established. Correlations of the CPSS with depression and anxiety measures were found to be lower than those of the CPTSD-RI. This result is expected therefore divergent validity was also established (Foa et al., 2001).

The scale was used with children in Nepal following a decade of war. The avoidance subscale items were found to be inefficient in measuring symptom severity as children reported that avoidance was a necessary survival technique in a war stricken environment rather than an indicator of pathology (Kohrt, Jordans, Tol, Luitel, Maharjan, & Upadhaya, 2011).

Use

The Perform Well website provides measurement tools and practical knowledge for human services professionals, www.performwell.org. The CPSS can be found under Find Survey/Assessments. The tools freely available online have not been updated to the DSM-5 criteria, however updated interview (CPSS-5-I) and self-report (CPSS-5-SR) versions can be obtained directly from the author  and another for self-report  however these are not freely available online. The differences in the updated self-report version include some changes in the wording of instructions, symptom items based on the last month, a 5-point frequency scale and additional symptom items measuring negative cognitions and mood.

References

Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS). (n.d.). Retrieved March 8, 2017, from http://www.performwell.org/index.php/find-surveyassessments/child-ptsd-symptom-scale-cpss

Child PTSD Symptom Scale (2001). Retrieved March 8, 2017, from http://www.istss.org/assessing-trauma/child-ptsd-symptom-scale.aspx

Foa, E.B. (2001). The Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS). Retrieved March 8, 2017, from U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Web site: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/assessment/child/cpss.asp

Foa, E. B., Johnson, K. M., Feeny, N. C., & Treadwell, K. R. H. (2001). The Child PTSD Symptom Scale: A preliminary examination of its psychometric properties [Abstract]. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 376-384.

Kohrt, B.A., Jordans, M.J.D., Tol, W.A., Luitel, N.P., Maharjan, S.M., & Upadhaya, N. (2011). Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal. BMC Psychiatry, 11, 127-144.

PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS). (n.d.). Retrieved March 12, 2017, from https://depts.washington.edu/hcsats/PDF/TF…/PSS-Adult.pdf